Brazilian folk music, formed by the mix of Iberian 10-string troubadour guitar traditions, Native Brazilian singing tones, African American beats (especially in sub-genre Pagode de Viola, as developed by Tião Carreiro, and southern American traditions (Fandango, Guarania, Bolero).
The classic Caipira duo consisted of a solo viola caipira player and an acoustic guitar player. Occasionally an accordionist would guest.
Forerunners of the genre were Raul Torres & Florêncio, Alvarenga & Ranchino and Carreiro & Carreirinho. The latter one actually made the transition to the style's golden era when he briefly formed a duo with Tião Carreiro, arguably the more innovative and important artist of the genre. The 50s and 60s were the peak of roots Sertanejo (Caipira), with artists such as Tonico & Tinoco, Tião Carreiro & Pardinho, Zilo & Zalo, Inezita Barroso (our Dame of Caipira Music) and Vieira & Vieirinha and composers like Teddy Vieira and Lourival dos Santos.
By the 70s, Sertanejo went through dramatic changes, becoming electrified pop-based country music, with electric guitars, drums and keyboards replacing the viola caipira, even though the duo formation was unchanged. This marks the split between caipira (Sertanejo roots) and the modern Sertanejo.
The roots genre survived during the 70s and 80s, though, and there was a renaissance of Caipira during the 90s and 00s as an Alternative niche genre by new and old artists such as Renato Teixeira, Zé Mulato & Cassiano and Pena Branca & Xavantinho.
ALL THE ABOVE RELEASES SHOULD BE ADDED WITH SERTANEJO, as it is the primary genre. See the entry for Sertanejo for more info.
SUB-GENRES AND VARIETIES
The sub-genres below are NOT necessarily matched with Sertanejo, but with other styles, such as MPB, Jazz, Classical Music, and Folk
An instrumental sub-genre was developed by Almir Sater, Tavinho Moura, Renato Andrade, and Helena Meirelles that moved Caipira closer to classical guitar music and Brazilian Instrumental Music, occasionally into MPB territory.
There are also regional sub-genres, such as Viola Nordestina (played with a dobro-like guitar), Armorial (a modern-folk style created by Quinteto Armorial), Fandango (a rhythm-based style from the southern coast), and Música Gaúcha Raiz (a folk genre from the south heavily influenced by Argentinian and Paraguayan music). However, except for the Viola Nordestina, most of these releases do not fit Sertanejo.